Conference 2021 Pre-Recorded Video


Project title

Assessing the Knowledge, Practices, and Attitude Of Pharmacists, Prescribers, and the Community Toward Antimicrobial Resistance In Ghana


Authors and Affiliations

Fahad Bin Waqas1

1. Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Radford University College, Ghana




Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a burgeoning threat to the interests of public health globally. Over the last decades, bacteria responsible for both common and severe life-threatening infections have consistently acquired resistance to novel antibiotics. There is significant evidence in literature suggesting that the knowledge and attitude among the community, pharmacists, and physicians play a pivotal role in the management of AMR. Therefore, this study aimed to ascertain the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of Physicians, Pharmacists, and the general public with regards to antibiotics and AMR in Ghana.


This study employed a cross-sectional survey using three specific self-administered questionnaires for community members, clinicians, and pharmacists via electronic means and was open to all the 16 regions of Ghana. Key associations between demographic information and responses were analyzed via the Chi-square test of association, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann Whitney U – test.


652, 51, and 63 responses were received from community members, clinicians, and pharmacists respectively. There was a significant association between educational level and whether individuals consumed antibiotics without a doctor’s prescription {X2 (2) = 17.89, p = 0.00}. 31.7% (n = 207) reportedly insisted on an antibiotic prescription. 48.4% (n = 318) respondents acknowledged that they often dispose of antibiotics alongside household waste. The percentage difference concerning these questions between the Greater Accra Region, Upper West Region, and other regions was not pronounced. 96.8% (n = 61) of pharmacists agreed that AMS programs would improve patient care and that adequate training should be provided to community pharmacists on antimicrobial use. 72.5% (n = 37) of clinicians said patients made demands for antibiotics to treat conditions like the common cold and 74.5% (n = 38) of them considered that AMR was a problem in their daily practice. 74.5% (38) clinicians were informed about nonclinical/environmental routes for the spread of AMR genes.


The responses from all three groups involved indicates that there are major lapses in the prescribing and dispensation habits of clinicians and pharmacists respectively. The public knowledge on antibiotic usage per this study is generally low.