Conference 2021 Pre-Recorded Video
HANTAVIRUS: A CONSPECTUS OF A RODENT-BORNE DISEASE
Authors and Affiliations
Ishita Gupta1, Rutu Hitesh Karia2, Amit Barua3
1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Himachal Pradesh, India
2. Anna Medical College and Research Centre, Mauritius
3. Institute of Applied Health Sciences, Chattogram, Bangladesh
The objective of this literature review on Hantavirus is to study the evolution and ecology, epidemiology, structure, pathogenesis, the clinical course of the diseases, and suggested treatment and prevention of the Hantavirus infection. The outbreaks of Hantavirus infection, a rodent-borne zoonosis, have occurred persistently since its first outbreak among the US soldiers fighting in the Korean War in the 1950s. However, it was not until the 1993 outbreaks in the Four Corner Region in the USA (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) that it was first recognized as the Hantavirus. The virus has been known to cause 3 main syndromes: Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), Nephropathica Epidemica (NE), and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS).
An electronic search was conducted between August 2020 to September 2020, using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. The final review articles were research articles on Hantavirus that were full text, peer-reviewed articles. In doing so, we had 76 articles for the final review. We tabulated the data using Microsoft Excel. Statistical analysis was not required, as this is a traditional review. Referencing was done according to guidelines using Zotero. This study did not require ethical approval as data was obtained from already available databases, and patients were not directly involved.
Annually, around 200,000 cases of Hantavirus infections are reported worldwide. 60,000-100,000 cases of HFRS cases worldwide. HFRS is mainly caused by the Puumala virus (PUUV), Hantaan virus (HNTV), and Seoul virus (SEOV). Geographically, Hantaviruses can lead to HFRS in Asia and Europe and HPS in North and South America. There have been numerous outbreaks of Hantavirus throughout the globe.
Since reassortments among the Hantaviruses have led to increased virulence and infectivity among few species, the fact that Hantaviruses may pose a severe public health concern in the future cannot be ignored. Therefore, it is imperative that appropriate measures are adopted to minimize human interaction with rodents. Meanwhile, a potent vaccine against Hantavirus must be invented and a specific cure must be discovered to avoid future pandemics.